Metacognitive Self-Reflection Bibliography

Ash, Sarah L. and Patti H. Clayton. 2009. “Generating, Deepening, and Documenting Learning: The Power of Critical Reflection in Applied Learning.” Journal of Applied Learning in Higher Education. 1:25-48.

Abstract: “Applied learning pedagogies—including service-learning, internships/practica, study abroad, and undergraduate research—have in common both the potential for significant student learning and the challenges of facilitating and assessing that learning, often in non-traditional ways that involve experiential strategies outside the classroom as well as individualized outcomes. Critical reflection oriented toward well-articulated learning outcomes is key to generating, deepening, and documenting student learning in applied learning. This article will consider the meaning of critical reflection and principles of good practice for designing it effectively and will present a research-grounded, flexible model for integrating critical reflection and assessment.” (p. 25) 

Beres, Katie. 2013. “Teaching Metacognition through Critical Reflection: Strategies and Tools.” Reinert Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning Website. Link: http://www.slu.edu/blogs/cttl/2013/05/30/teaching-metacognition-through-critical-reflection-strategies-and-tools/ 

Balgopal, Meena M. and Lisa Montplaisir. 2009. “Meaning making: What reflective essays reveal about biology students’ conceptions about natural selection.” Instructional Science. 39:137–169. 

Though analysis of students’ reflective writing, explores how students make meaning of the biological concepts of natural selection. Gives some ideas about how to interpret the reflective writing of students and also ways to assess that writing. 

Balgopal, Meena M. and Alison M. Wallace. 2009. “Decisions and Dilemmas: Using Writing to Learn Activities to Increase Ecological Literacy.” The Journal of Environmental Education. 40(3):13-26. 

Center for Innovation and Excellence in Learning Website. “Ten Metacognitive Teaching Strategies.” Link: https://ciel.viu.ca/teaching-learning-pedagogy/designing-your-course/how-learning-works/ten-metacognitive-teaching-strategies 

Includes specific techniques and instruments for encouraging self-assessment and teaching metacognitive skills. 

  • Metacognitive Awareness inventory
  • Pre-assessment of content
  • Self-Assessment of self-regulated learning skills 
  • Think alouds
  • Concept mapping and visual tools 
  • Classroom assessment tools (like one-minute papers)
  • Metacognitive Note Taking Skills
  • Reflective writing
  • Wrappers
  • Retrospective post-assessment

Chick, Nancy. “Metacognition: Thinking about One’s Thinking.” Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching Website. https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/metacognition/ 

Chick et al. 2009. “Learning from Their Own Learning: How Metacognitive and Metaaffective Reflections Enhance Learning in Race-Related Courses.” International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 3(1):1-28. https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1144&context=ij-sotl 

Abstract: “This interdisciplinary project examined how students think and feel about their learning in race-related diversity courses. Students in four classes (literature, psychology, geography) reflected on cognitive and affective dimensions of their own and their classmates’ learning. The Color Blind Racial Attitudes Scales (CoBRAS) confirmed qualitative analyses of learning patterns in three of the classes that resulted in moving from lack of awareness about racism to increased understanding and in the fourth class that lacked this movement. Findings include what helped students learn, cognitive and affective obstacles to learning, and the benefit of exposing students to multiple perspectives, empathy-enhancing activities, and emotional regulation skills.” 

Concepción, David W. “Reading Philosophy with Background Knowledge and Metacognition” Teaching Philosophy 24(4):351-368. Available: https://www.pdcnet.org/8525737F00588478/file/C125737F0061DCC6C125756D0060B335/$FILE/teachphil_2004_0027_0004_0055_0072.pdf

Abstract: “This paper describes how and why I help students learn how to read philosophy. I argue that explicit reading instruction should be part of lower level philosophy courses. Specifically, students should be given metacognitively informed instruction that explicitly discusses relevant background knowledge. In the postscript, I note that student reactions to this type of instruction verify its necessity. The appendix contains a “How to Read Philosophy” handout that I use in my classes.”

Darling-Hammond, Linda et al. “Thinking about Thinking: Metacognition.” The Learning Classroom. Available: http://www.learner.org/courses/learningclassroom/support/09_metacog.pdf 

Darling-Hammond, Linda, Austin, K., Cheung, M., & Martin, D. (2003). Thinking about thinking: Metacognition. The learning classroom: Theory into practice. Stanford University School of Education. http://www.learner.org/courses/learningclassroom/support/09_metacog.pdf 

Written specifically about teaching children, this piece is useful because it articulates the difference between metacognitive reflection and metacognitive regulation, when others leave the distinction muddy.

DePaul Teaching Commons Website. “Activities for Metacognition.” Available: https://resources.depaul.edu/teaching-commons/teaching-guides/learning-activities/Pages/activities-for-metacognition.aspx 

Eaton, Marie, and Kathleen O’Brien. Creating a Vital Campus in a Climate of Restricted Resources: Role of Student Self-Reflection and Self-Assessment (June 2, 2004)

“In learning environments where courses and educational experiences are organized around learning outcomes and ways students learn, rather than solely by the acquisition of disciplinary knowledge (e.g. biology, English literature) and the ways these disciplines are organized, students will not only experience learning differently, but the ways learning is documented must also change to help the learner see his or her progress toward expected outcomes.  Engaging learners in activities that encourage them to document and assess their own learning is essential since it gives both the learner and the educator insights into how well the learner is learning and how well the learning experiences are contributing to the student’s process and progress toward the learning goals.” (Eaton and O’Brien 2004:1)

Erskine, Dana Lynn. 2010. “Effect of Prompted Reflection and Metacognitive Skill Reflection.” Dissertation. Brigham Young University.

Guskin, Alan E. & Marcy, Mary B.  2003. “Dealing with the Future Now: Principles for Creating a Vital Campus in a Climate of Restricted Resources.” Change.

Harvey, Marina et al. 2016. “A song and a dance: Being inclusive and creative in practicing and documenting reflection for learning.” Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice. 13(2): 3. 

Abstract: “The ongoing reliance on journals for practising and documenting reflection has several benefits; however, a diverse student body, engaging with diverse learning experiences, is likely to benefit from being offered diverse, flexible ways of engaging with reflective practice. Informed by student and practitioner reflective data gathered at an Australian university, this conceptual paper accepts the challenge to “disrupt” (deFreitas 2007) the text and “move beyond the diary” (Harvey et al. 2012) to present an argument for the value and role of alternative modes of reflection, spanning arts-based, embodied, mindful and technological approaches. Underpinning this advocacy of diverse mediums for reflection are the principles of inclusivity and universal design.”

  • This article explains in detail the strengths of several specific non-text-based modes of reflection.

Irvine, Jeff. “A comparison of revised Bloom and Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Learning” http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/172608.pdf 

Isaacson, Randy M. and Fujita. 2006. “Metacognitive Knowledge Monitoring and Self-Regulated Learning: Academic Success and Reflections on Learning.” Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol. 6, No. 1, August 2006, pp. 39 – 55. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ854910.pdf

Abstract: During the past decade the relationship of self-regulated learning (SRL) to academic success has been extensively explored but the impact of metacognition in this process has not been thoroughly examined. This study examined the relationship of metacognitive knowledge monitoring (MKM) to classroom performance. Eighty-four undergraduate students in an introductory educational psychology class completed ten weekly in-class tests in which they were allowed to choose test questions. Students were asked to identify the number of hours they studied, their level of confidence, and to predict their test results after completing the test but before it was graded. High achieving students were: more accurate at predicting their test results; more realistic in their goals; more likely to adjust their confidence in-line with their test results; and more effective in choosing test questions to which they knew the answers. The study supports the relationship of metacognitive knowledge monitoring to self-regulated learning and academic success. Keywords: self-regulated learning, metacognitive knowledge monitoring

Larrivee, B. (2008) Development of a tool to assess teacher’s level of reflective practice. Reflective Practice, 9 (3) 341-360.

While this article develops a tool for assessing the level of reflective practice of teachers and teachers in training, ,it provides a scale for thinking about the depth of reflection, which will be useful for those who want to assess (or assign grades to) self-reflection. 

Lin, Xiaodong. 2001. “Designing Metacognitive Activities.” Educational Technology Research and Development. 49(2):29-40. 

Does not focus on self-reflection, but on two approaches to supporting metacognitive development: 

  1. Strategy training
  2. Creating a supportive social environment

And on two kinds of content: 

  1. Domain-specific knowledge 
  2. Knowledge of self-as-learner

Schraw, G. & Dennison, R.S. 1994.  “Assessing metacognitive awareness.”  Contemporary Educational Psychology 19: 460-475.

Tanner, Kimberley D. 2012. “Promoting Student Metacognition.” CBE-Life Science Education. 11:113–120. https://www.lifescied.org/doi/pdf/10.1187/cbe.12-03-0033 

  • Based on the planning, monitoring, evaluating model of cognition. 
  • Good literature review on the definition of metacognition. 
  • Promoting faculty metacognition

University of Michigan Sweetland Center for Writing Website. “Cultivating Reflection and Metacognition.” Available: https://lsa.umich.edu/sweetland/instructors/teaching-resources/cultivating-reflection-and-metacognition.html 

Considers the metacognitive cycle of: 

• planning • monitoring • evaluatingAnd offers concrete classroom strategies for each of those processes. 
Yale Center for Teaching and Learning Website. “Encouraging Metacognition in the Classroom.”
Link: https://ctl.yale.edu/MetacognitioninClassrooms